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Form-Fill-Seal (FFS) refers to packaging processes that form the package (forming equipment), usually from a flexible material, fill it with product then seal it, all on one machine. It is also sometimes used to refer to machinery that molds a plastic bottle from resin, fills then seals it. These are outside the scope of this whitepaper which will focus on FFS with flexible materials. These flexible materials can be plastic film, metal foil, paper or combination. The word “film” will be used generically in this paper regardless of actual material. All of the machines discussed here use continuous film supplied on rolls.

This paper will discuss 3 major types of FFS (forming equipment) machine:

  • Vertical FFS, sometimes called “baggers”
  • Horizontal FFS, often called flowwrappers
  • Pouching or pouch forming equipment



There are several areas which are common to all 4 types of machine:

无论形成设备样式如何,都必须在电影中保持一致万博体育官方客户端下载的张力。如果紧张局势太少,电影可能会皱纹,会导致外观和密封问题。可变张力会导致保持适当的包装长度和注册的问题。一些成型设备将膜从供应卷中万博体育官方客户端下载拉下,并使用制动器来控制张力。其他人则使用Undind Motor以受控的方式放松电影,同时保持适当的张力。

After unwinding the film usually follows a zig-zag path through a series of dancer rollers. These rollers help control tension as well as alignment and flatness of the film. They are called “dancer” rollers because they dance up and down as the film is fed.

  • Splicing/Extra roll


Accumulation boxes allow manually unwinding of the last 40-50’ of the roll so that splicing can be done without stopping the machine.

Even better is a second rollstand so that the next roll can be mounted and spliced before the current roll finishes. This sketch shows such an arrangement before and after including justification.


Horizontal form-fill-seal (HFFS) forming equipment machines are often called flow wrappers. They get this name because of the way product “flows” smoothly through the forming equipment. They are similar in operation to vertical form-fill-seal machines except that product flow is horizontal instead of vertical.

Flow wrappers are great for packaging products that need to be oriented on the wrapper such as trays of cookies, stacks of hamburgers, candy bars. They will handle trays of cookies well but not loose cookies. These will run best on a VFFS machine where they can fall by gravity into the bag.

Most HFFS machines tend to be intermittent motion, with some continuous motion forming equipment for higher speeds to 150cpm or so. Flow wrappers tend to be continuous motion and some will run as fast as 1,500 packages per minute. Speeds to 2-300ppm are common.

Flow wrappers begin by placing the product on an infeed conveyor. Many flow wrappers use a lug chain to control product infeed. Product is placed between the lugs, or pushers which are synchronized with the wrapper. Some more modern machines, especially those running higher speeds, dispense with the lugs and use a series of servomotor driven conveyors and sensors to control product infeed.

Product may be placed on the infeed manually, with robots or other automated mechanisms.

As the product is being fed, film is being unwound through dancer rolls which control the tension. As in all roll fed machinery, tension control is critical for good performance.

The film feeds to a forming shoe (forming equipment) which forms it into a tube. The film sides extend down in a fin seal (inner layer to inner layer) and are captured between two wheels. These wheels pull the film through the machine and form the longitudinal seal. Wheels are typically heated to melt a plastic adhesive layer on the inside of the film. Other alternatives include patterned wheels to weld single layer plastic films and ultrasonic welding. Some films come with pre-applied “cold” adhesive. In this case, the wheels apply pressure with no heat to form the seal.


Many machines use rotary sealing jaws. These work well at lower speeds and easy to seal films. The benefit is simplicity. The drawback is that that they only touch the film momentarily. At higher speeds or more difficult to seal films, they may not have enough dwell or contact time to make an adequate seal.

If this is the case, reciprocating jaws may be used. The jaws move up and down vertically. Because the film is continuously moving, the sealing jaw mechanism must be mounted on a slide that tracks the film horizontally. This provides the extra sealing time needed but adds mechanical complexity.

Flexible packaging has many advantages, particularly logistical, over other forms of packaging. HFFS let you take advantage of this without sacrificing production speeds.

Pouches, sometimes called sachets, are generally formed from rollfed filmstock. They can also be formed offline at a converter or elsewhere then filled and closed on a separate machine. When preformed pouches are used, the filling and sealing process is similar except that the pouches will be fed from a magazine rather than a roll.

Films can be any sealable material such as plastic, aluminum, paper or combinations. Generally, film requirements will be similar to those of VFFS and HFFS machines discussed in a previous white paper. This paper will focus on machinery that forms, fills and seals the pouches on a single machine.

Three side seal pouches

Three-side seal pouches are formed from a single sheet of film, folded and sealed on 3 sides. They generally feature a horizontal film flow with vertical filling of liquid or solid product. Pouch sizes can range from very small, such as salt packets to very large such as multi-pound packages of chicken parts. Speeds range from a few dozen pouches per minute to several hundred per minute on high speed rotary machines.


The film roll is loaded in the machine and unwound through a series of dancer rolls. As with all film machines, tension control is critical to good performance. If the film is unprinted or continuous print, it will be unwound and cut to length. If pattern printed, it will need a registration detection system to cut precisely between graphic patterns.

If a zipper strip is desired, it can be added at this point, the zipper strip material, with both male and female halves joined, is supplied on a continuous roll. The zipper is unwound and fed between the two sides of the pouch. Sealing jaws seal it to the film. As the vertical edges of the film are sealed and cut, the zipper is sealed between them and cut flush to the film edge.

The film passes over a V block where it is folded in half to form a V. If a standup pouch is to be formed, a second, inverted, V block pushes the bottom of the film up, forming it into a W. A pair of rollers or horizontal jaws may be used to pinch the bottom of the pouch to form a sharp a sharp crease or the fold(s) may be left uncreased.

The next step is a vertical sealing jaw. This makes a double seal on each pouch sealing the trailing edge of the leading pouch and the leading edge of the next pouch. Normally this jaw is straight, making a square or rectangular pouch. In some instances a shaped or contoured pouch may be desired. A specially shaped sealing jaw with a die cutting blade may be used to cut the pouches. One drawback to a shaped vs square/rectangular pouch is that it is material inefficient, creating scrap. This scrap must be removed from the machine which also adds complexity.


The pouch is now closed on 3 sides and open on the top. It is captured by grippers then cut free from the web and passed to the filling station. A pair of suction cups, front and back, may be used to pull the pouch open to facilitate filling. Some products may need multiple filling stations. A chicken noodle soup mix might need 3 (Soup powder, noodles and chicken bits) It is critical during filling not to contaminate the top seal area as this will prevent good seals. If needed nitrogen or other gas may be injected at this point.

If the pouch is to have a fitment, such as a re-closeable spout, it will be inserted into the bag and held in place after filling. Specially formed sealing jaws will seal the top edge of the pouch to and around the fitment as well as the rest of the top seal. If there is no fitment, a simple straight jaw provides the top seal.


For simplicity, the above described an inline intermittent motion pouching machine. If higher speeds are required, continuous motion, rotary machines are available. The principle of operation is similar: Form the film into a V or W, seal the vertical edges, fill the product and seal the top.

Four-side seal

Vertical and horizontal FFS machines as well as the 3 sided pouching machines discussed above use a single film. 4 sided seal pouching machines can use a single film for the front and back or can use different films. Some sterilizable medical devices use a clear film on one side for product visibility and a permeable Tyvek® film on the other to allow sterilization. Films can be registered or unregistered. They can also be registered on one side eg; front and unregistered on the other.

4个侧面的小袋之所以获得名称,是因为它们由2个扁平胶片组成,没有褶皱,在产品的所有4个侧面都密封。这消除了薄膜中的褶皱,尤其是可能会产生弱点的折痕。袋尺寸的范围从½英寸或较小到6英寸x 12英寸或更大。机器可能是液体,片剂,糖果等垂直的。它们可能是水平的,例如毛巾或袋中需要更精确取向的医疗套件。



这些机器的一个优点是,他们可以produce multiple, sometimes as many as 10-12, pouches across the film. This allows high production rates at relatively low cycle speeds. A machine running 10 up (10 pouches across) at 60 cycles per minute has an output of 600 individual packages per minute.


In operation the film is fed via tension control rollers to the front and the back of the machine. If different films are used, they will be supplied on two rolls. If the same film is used front and back, it is common to supply a single, wide, roll of film and slit it in half as it comes off the roll. The 2 halves of the film are guided to the front and back of the machine. The advantage to using a single, slit, roll is that it eliminates the issue of multiple stoppages if separate front and back rolls do not run out at precisely the same time. Using a single roll also simplifies stock keeping by eliminating a separate raw material part number. The double width roll, especially on a wide format machine, does have the disadvantage of being heavy and cumbersome to handle. Specialized roll handling and transport carts can minimize this issue and are highly recommended.


The films are brought together in the machine and pass between a pair of rollers that form the longitudinal, lengthwise, seal between the pouches. This step usually includes trimming a small amount of material on the joined film’s outer edges to compensate for any slight misalignments. A second sealing roll below forms the cross seal, sealing the bottom of the current pouch and the top of the preceding pouch. These rolls are generally designed with cavities, rather than a flat surface, to conform to the shape of the product or to allow space for the product.

At this point the pouch is formed on 3 sides and the product can be introduced. Various types of feeders (solid product) or filling pumps (liquids) as appropriate can be used to dispense the product between the films and into the pouch. If required, nitrogen or other gas can be injected at this point. Care must be taken not to get powder or liquid on the seal area as this will interfere with proper sealing.

As the pouches continue through the machine, they are slit longitudinally into strips. A cross cutter then cuts the strips into individual pouches which are discharged to the next packaging step.

This description of the typical pouching machine assumes that each pouch is to be individualized which is not always the case. The final discharged product may consist of multiple pouches with or without perforations in strips or sheets. The major difference in the process will be the design of the slitting and cutoff blades.

The description above is of a multi-row, continuous motion machine. Intermittant motion and single row machine designs are also available when capacity requirements are lower.


Fully automatic splicing systems will splice on the fly with zero downtime. They may seem expensive but they can significantly improve annual output. This allows them to pay for themselves pretty quickly.

Flexible packaging has many advantages over other methods in cost, inventory shipping and volume. Vertical and horizontal form-fill-seal as well as 3 and 4 side pouch machines are the most common methods. Which of them to choose will depend largely upon product requirements and desired final appearance.

当需要撕裂凹口或悬挂孔时,此时通常会切入胶片中。悬挂孔通常不会完全打孔。Leaving the chad attached to the package

Vertical form-fill-seal (VFFS) machines may be the most common flexible packaging machine. They are used to pack liquids, powders, hardware, toys, piece parts like candy and everything else that is nor oriented. Their nature makes it difficult to maintain product orientation during loading. Loose cookies are a good application for VFFS. Cookies stacked in a tray are not.

Package sizes range from 1” X 1” and smaller to 12” X 12” and larger. Speeds can range from a couple of bags per minute to 150 or more.

VFFS bags are often primary packaging and can be interior like the bag of cornflakes inside the carton. Interior bags are usually an unprinted plain plastic.

VFFS bags can be the display package like potato chips. These bags are what the customer sees on the shelf. They normally have display graphics to catch the eye and must be formed in register.


Additional features can include gussets, flat bottom, top or both and gable tops. Zi-Lock style strips may be incorporated for resealability. Fitments may be added such as a reclosable lid.

All this flexibility makes VFFS a good choice for many products.

All VFFS machines work basically the same way:

  • Film is supplied in roll form and mounted in the unwind station of the machine.
  • The film is looped through a series of dancer rolls that control tension. Lower speed machines use the dancer rolls to control a mechanical brake on the roll. More modern or higher speed machines may use a motorized unwind to control the tension.
  • The film is led up to a forming collar. This forms the film around the forming tube, into a tubular shape. This tube is often round but, if a square bag is desired, may be square.
  • 一双伺服驱动皮带捉起这部电影感情n belts and forming tube. These pull the film down to the required length. If no registration is required, they pull the tube to a length. Slight, natural, variations would make this unacceptable with a printed film. These films need a registration mark to indicate the package end. The VFFS machine has a sensor which detects the mark and stops the machine at the mark.

NOTE: It is important for the machine supplier to know upfront whether registration is required.

  • A cross sealing jaw seals the top of the previous bag, the bottom of the current bag and, if required, cuts them apart.
  • 一旦底部密封,产品放入the top of the forming tube, the bag is pulled down and the cycle repeated.

Flexible packaging has many logistical, cost, environmental and marketing advantages over comparable rigid and semi-rigid packages. Innovations such as resealable bags and other features is making them more popular for a wider range of products.

Flexible packaging has been around for a long time but is becoming ever more popular. Flexible packages reduce physical inventory. A warehouse full of bottles may be replaced by a single pallet of film rolls.

One popular form of flexible packaging is the 3 sided flexible pouch. These may be continuous or intermittent motion and can run as speeds from a few dozen to a few hundred pouches per minute.


As the film comes off the unwind roll, a series of dancer rollers align and tension it. Proper tension is critical to a good pouch and good registration. On lighter rolls at lower speeds, the pouch machine will pull the film off the roll. On heavier rolls or higher speeds, a powered unwind may be required.

As the film exits the dancer rolls, it is folded in half by a “V” shaped plow. In the case of a standup pouch, a secondary plow forms it into a “W”. Zipper strips for easy opening and resealability may be inserted at this stage

After folding, vertical sealing bars seal the trailing edge of one package and the leading edge of the next. As the film indexes, grippers grab the leading edge of the pouch and a knife makes a vertical cut between the two pouches to individuate them. In some cases, instead of cutting them apart they may be perforated or even uncut to form a continuous strip.


The pouches move to a filling section where a pair of suction cups pull the film open to allow introduction of liquid or solid product using standard filling equipment. Depending the product, multiple filling stations may be used. A chicken noodle soup mix may contain soup powder and chicken chunks each filled individually. When filling, it is important not to get any product on the seal area as this can prevent proper sealing.

After filling, a pair of jaws seal the top of the pouch. In some cases a fitment, such as a dispensing screw cap, will be placed and the film will be sealed to and around the fitment.


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